What is Colic? Colic is a rather common condition found in many infants. The temporary ailment often appears after a couple of months of being born. Although the disease is not lethal or dangerous for a baby, it is not pleasant either. Although researchers do not believe the condition has any permanent effects on an infant’s health, this does not mean that parents will not want to seek a diagnosis. Who is at Risk for Colic? This disease can affect any baby, however, some maternal behaviors during pregnancy can contribute to a heightened chance of diagnosis. These behaviors include: Substance abuse: including illegal drug use and alcohol. Smoking: anything with tobacco. Insufficient weight gain: more common in teen pregnancy. Medical complications: such as blood pressure problems, diabetes or heart conditions. Please keep in mind that no baby is immune to colic. The disease often develops in the absence of any risk factors. Colic Signs and Symptoms Unfortunately, a baby cannot tell you when they are feeling upset. Instead, you must learn how to identify your infant’s signs of distress. [youmaylike] There are several things that are easily recognizable as something being wrong. Consider going to a doctor if your baby exhibits some of the following symptoms. Crying Fits Crying is a baby’s key method of communication. It is their way to let you know something is up. As any parent would tell you, crying is an activity infants do a lot of. Whether they saw something that startled them or needed a diaper change. Although it may not seem like it sometimes, babies cry for a reason. Unfortunately, sometimes their reasons for crying are not obvious. When there seems to be no visible cause for their distress, there is sometimes something deeper going on. If these seemingly random episodes of crying happen regularly around the same time every evening or night, colic might be to blame. Other times colic-induced crying will likely take place are during feedings or sleeping. Tense Posture Signs of distress do not always have to be loud. You can tell a lot about a baby through their body language. Abnormally tense posture is sometimes a sign that something is wrong. A tightened tummy, “fetal position,” or tightened fists can also be an indication of colic. Excessive Flatulence Farting is a perfectly healthy occurrence in any infant. What is not normal is when your baby cries while it passes gas. If your baby is farting excessively or crying during it, talk to their pediatrician. Keep in mind that all infants experience colic a little differently. It may be possible that your baby only faces mild symptoms. It is also important to recognize that these symptoms are rather vague. Colic is most often diagnosed after the possibility of other maladies is eliminated. Babies demonstrating these behaviors may be experiencing a more serious medical condition than colic. Contact a trained medical physician immediately if you ever believe there is something wrong with your child. What Causes Colic? Sadly, there is no concrete cause of colic. This does not mean that experts have no idea what is behind this illness. Many researchers believe that flatulence or indigestion plays the role of colic in infants. These abnormalities could be due to early developmental factors of an infant’s digestive system. For instance, discomfort may occur because their gut is sensitive and immature. Many of the colic symptoms seem to mimic those of lactose intolerance, urging some doctors to question whether there is an intolerance to the ingredients of breast milk or formula. Unfortunately, studies have yet to confidently support these claims and there seems to be no difference in colic development between infants who are breastfed and those who are fed with formula. Colic Treatment Whether or not you treat colic depends on the severity of the symptoms. If you are dealing with some of the more severe symptoms, there are some solutions you can try. Eliminating Cow Milk Depending on how you choose to feed your infant, this can mean one of two things. If you bottle feed, you should look into some hypoallergenic formulas. If you breastfeed, begin a dairy-free diet. This is not guaranteed to help, so if you do not notice any improvements, feel free to go back to your normal lifestyle. Drops You should never give your baby anything that is not first approved by a pediatrician. If you believe that your infant needs to have some help in managing their colic symptoms, consider consulting your pediatrician about simethicone or lactose drops. Simethicone drops help reduce the amount of trapped wind while lactose drops help break down enzymes found in milk. As the condition is not shown to cause any short or long-term deficits, it is often recommended to just wait it out. Colic is only a temporary condition that will go away with a little patience and time.
What is Melasma?
As early as 470 to 360 BC, during the time of Hippocrates, skin discoloration worsening after sun exposure and heat was discovered. Eventually, this skin condition was named chloasma and what we now commonly know as melasma. So, what is melasma?
Although it is not life-threatening, melasma can have an impact on a person’s physical appearance, leading to psychosocial and emotional distress. This can affect a person’s quality of life, self-esteem and wellbeing. This article will discuss what melasma is, what causes it and its common symptoms. We will also outline the top treatments for melasma and how it can be prevented.
Melasma is an acquired skin condition characterized by increased pigmentation in the face (hyperpigmentation). Melasma usually occurs more often in females and in people with darker skin. In America, it is common among people residing in the intertropical areas where there is greater exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Melasma usually appears between the age group of 20 to 40 years old, especially among females in their reproductive years. It is rarely seen before puberty.
What Causes Melasma?
The exact cause of melasma is unknown, but throughout the years, factors that trigger melasma have been identified. The main triggers are usually radiation and hormones.
Radiation, whether ultraviolet light, visible light, or infrared light can cause melasma. Sunlight exposure makes it worse and is the most important trigger. People who are exposed to ultraviolet radiation have an increased risk for developing melasma.
Furthermore, because it is affected by hormones, there is an increased risk for melasma during pregnancy. Around 50% to 70% of pregnant people report having it. People who take oral contraceptives or people who undergo hormonal therapy also have a higher risk for melasma.
Other risk factors include stress and exposure to certain cosmetics or medications (such as some anti-seizure and phototoxic medications). A family history of can also increase the chances of someone having this condition by 50%.
The exact cause of hyperpigmentation is still being studied, but it is observed that the effect leads to skin cells (melanocytes) being stimulated by hormones (estrogen or progesterone), which leads to the increased production of melanin pigments that cause hyperpigmentation. This is further exacerbated when exposed to radiation, such as being under the sun for significant periods of time. UV exposure is said to directly stimulate the activity of melanocytes, leading to increased pigmentation.
What Are the Symptoms?
It is characterized by hyperpigmentation. The hyperpigmentation is symmetric and presents as brown or grey patches. These patches usually have irregular contours. The patches are usually seen in various areas of the skin but especially in the sun-exposed areas, such as the face and neck. In Around 50% to 80% of cases of melasma, the hyperpigmentation is in the central facial area, which includes the forehead, upper lip and nose. There are cases wherein the area of the cheeks is affected and in a smaller group of people, the jawline and chin are affected.
What Are the Treatment Options?
Although melasma is a common disorder, management of the condition can still be difficult due to the recurrence rates and limited knowledge of disease progression. However, the treatment of melasma can be grouped into topical, oral and procedural therapies. These will be discussed below.
1. Avoiding Triggers
The best treatment for melasma is combining topical treatments while also avoiding triggers, such as sun or estrogen exposure. Because the sun is the most common trigger, avoiding sun exposure can do a lot in preventing melasma. Avoiding triggers can already have a big impact and can prevent a person from spending too much on expensive medications and treatments. Avoiding triggers also has a big effect on reducing recurrence rates.
People with or at high risk for developing melasma should avoid using too many cosmetics, especially if your skin is sensitive. Vigorous rubbing of cosmetic creams and other agents on hyperpigmented skin may worsen the condition.
Other than avoiding the sun, skin protection from sunburn is also important. The use of high SPF sunscreens (SPF of at least 50 or higher) can also prevent the development of melasma. When it is unavoidable to go out, wearing protection, such as hats or bringing an umbrella, can also help.
2. Topical Therapy
The first therapy option for melasma is topical therapy. Topical therapy includes a combination of hydroquinone, tretinoin and corticosteroids (commonly the corticosteroid fluocinolone acetonide is used). When a person has hypersensitivity to triple combinations or when they are unavailable, dual ingredients or single topical agents are given. The triple combination topical therapy is currently the treatment that is most effective and favorable. Topical bleaching creams can also be helpful, but results are not guaranteed and sometimes effects take too long and are minimal.
3. Oral Therapy
Usual oral therapies include tranexamic acid, glutathione and polypodium leucotomos. These oral therapies can help reduce symptoms. However, in terms of effectiveness, oral therapy shows various results in the resolution of melasma, thus they are usually used if topical therapy is unavailable or cannot be given. Although oral therapies are not the first option or standard of care for melasma at present, various studies show that they have promising results.
4. Procedural Therapy
Usual procedures to treat melasma include chemical peels, micro-needling, radiofrequency and lasers. Effectivity of procedures to treat melasma is mixed and can vary from person to person. In some cases, chemical peels and lasers can yield faster results compared to topical medications. However, there is no guarantee of the resolution from these treatments. Furthermore, these procedures may have adverse effects, such as skin damage, further hyperpigmentation due to inflammation and scarring. Lasers have also been found to be associated with increased recurrence rates. This is why these are usually used as adjuncts or second line therapies if other treatments are unavailable or have failed.
This condition is managed using one or more therapies. A combination of any of these treatments usually provides better results than using one type of treatment only. In some cases, it can even resolve on its own, especially if triggers are avoided.
Although melasma may not be life-threatening, its impact on appearance can be significant. Even if the primary reason for the treatment is aesthetic, its effect on a person’s confidence and self-esteem is irreplaceable.